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Iveiut^ k*vo ! 

Presented to the 
LIBRARY of the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

by 

Ontario 

Legislative 

Library 



MONOGRAMS 

AND 
CIPHERS 



N 




ROYAL CIPHER 





MONOGRAMS 
^-CIPHERS 

DESIGNED AND-DRAWN BY 

A-A-TURJBAYNE 

AND 
OTHER-MEMBERS-OF-THE 

- CARLTON - 
STUDIO 



LONDON'TC'&ECJACK 
6-EDINBURGH 



r 



j 

^ lit .U" in 




<l) it I .11' .0. 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

IN laying out this book I have put into it the experience of 
many years of actual work in the designing of Monograms, 
Ciphers, Trade-Marks, and other letter devices. I have given the 
work much careful thought in order to present the most useful 
material, to give that material on a good workable scale, and in 
such a way that any design can be quicklv found. By the 
arrangement of the designs the plates form their own index. On 
Plate ii will be found combinations of AA, AB, AC ; on Plate in 
combinations of AC, AD ; on Plate i\ , AM, AM, AG, etc. A 
device of MB would be looked for under the letter of the 
alphabet first in order, B; it will thus be found in the BM 
combinations on Plate xvi. 

Now the letters AA have only one reading; two different 
letters, AB, can be read in two ways ; while AAB can be read 
in three ways; and ABC, or any three different letters, can be 
placed to read in six ways. 

A complete series of designs, A A, AB, BA, AC, CA, to 
ZZ, would run to 676 devices; add to this a series with a repeated 
letter, which would be the next in order, giving one reading only, 
AAB, BBA, etc., of which there are 650, and we get 1326 
combinations. This would require, if carried out with nine 



*r 

- 



MONOGRAMS AND CIPHERS 

designs on a plate, 147 plates. Our book was not to exceed 
135 plates, and in addition to as complete a series as possible of 
two-letter designs, there were to be included some plates of 
sacred devices, designs of three different letters, and other matter 
which would make a work of practical use. 

By limiting the number of combinations containing the I and J, 
and the O and Q, which can easily be made interchangeable in 
the working, and giving but a single reading of most of the devices 
containing the letters X, Y, Z, which will be the least used, I 
have been able to present a good working selection of two letters 
and a repeated letter in 1 1 3 plates. 

Three different letters, as I have stated, can be read in six 
ways. Take, for instance, the first three letters of the alphabet, 
and we have 

ABC BAG CAB 
ACB EGA CBA 

Add a fourth letter to the three, and we have four times six, or 
twenty-four readings, as follows : 



ABCD 


BACD 


CABD 


DABC 


ABDC 


BADC 


CADB 


DACB 


ACBD 


BCAD 


CBAD 


DBAC 


ACDB 


BCDA 


CBDA 


DBCA 


ADBC 


BDAC 


CDAB 


DCAB 


ADCB 


BDCA 


CDBA 


DCBA 






INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

It will thus be seen that hooks advertised as made up of 
three- and four-letter combinations must he very fragmentary, as 
anything like a complete work ol these units would run to an 
enormous length. 

Now let us see what a work of three-letter designs would 
mean. ABC, ABI), etc., giving an alphabet of one reading only, 
would run to 2600 designs. A book of this sort would be of 
little use, as the design looked for would probably not be there, 
for every one of these 2600 groups can be placed to read six 
different ways; and to make a complete work of three-letter 
designs, with no repeat letters even, would require a showing of 
15,600 Monograms or Ciphers. But what about the three letters, 
one of which is a repeat? A glance through any list of persons 
will show that these have a right to be included, though they do 
not occur as frequently as three different letters. Add these 
to the list for a complete three-letter book there are 1976 of 
them, including 26 combinations where the three letters are 
the same, AAA, etc. and we have 17,576 designs to be shown. 
Following the plan of nine designs on a plate, we would require 
1953 plates, making a work of fourteen volumes the size of the 
present book. A bulky work of this sort would not only be 
unpractical, but the cost of production and the price at which 
such a work could be sold, would place it beyond the reach of 
most of those workers to whom we hope to appeal. 

In the plan I have adopted the book is practically a complete 

xi 



- 



MONOGRAMS AND CIPHERS 

work of two-letter combinations in a single volume. A device of 
any two letters will always be readily found, which should be 
sufficient to furnish the designer or artisan with a base upon which 
to build a design of three or more letters. 

There is to-day a growing taste for severe chaste forms in 
printing types and lettering; the same influence is also directing 
a change of style in the more decorative Monogram and Cipher. 
The florid combinations of the last two centuries are gradually 
falling into disuse, and are giving place to the very simplest forms. 
The aim of the present work is towards simplicity, but in order 
that the book may appeal to various tastes, and thus be of greater 
value, examples of many styles are included. 

Each of these styles, while based on some familiar form 
which has long been in use, has had its pruning, and as much 
of the superfluous flourish not necessary to letter or design has 
been discarded. 

The styles included may be classed under five principal 
heads Roman, Gothic, Sans Serif, Cursive or Running, and what 
I might call Rustic. These styles are treated in various ways, 
and in light and heavy letters. Here and there throughout the 
work a design will be found that may suggest a treatment for 
some particular device. These are odd pieces that have occurred 
to me as the plates were in progress, the execution of most of 
which would probably be more satisfactory in embroidery than 
any other medium. There are three principal forms of treating 

xii 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

a device; I will call them the Imposed, Extended, and the 
Continuous forms. By the Imposed form I mean a design where 
the letters are written or interlaced directly over one another. 
In the Extended form the letters are interlaced or written side 
by side. In the Continuous form the device runs from beginning 
to end without a break. In the Imposed form the principal letter, 
whether it is first or final, should be accentuated, cither by making 
it slightly larger, heavier, or in some other way best suited to the 
material in which it is being produced, it may be colour or texture. 
For the Extended form, if the letters are to be read in the order 
in which they follow one another, all may be treated alike. In 
this form, however, it is often advisable, for design and balance, 
especially when filling a circular space, to place the principal 
letter in the centre; in that case it may be drawn larger, and in 
some other way made more important. The Continuous form 
should read as the letters would be written, and care must be- 
taken to place them so that they will not appear to read in some 
other way. It is intended that the Monograms and Ciphers shown 
in the following plates be considered as outlines only, as models 
or working drawings. The solid or tint grounds need not be 
taken as part of the design ; they are intended to show which are 
planned in a round, and which in a square panel. There are but a 
few cases in which any detail is given that would apply to a particular 
craft, or suggest the material in which they are to be worked. 
Each artist or craftsman can use the forms, supplying his own 

xiii 



MONOGRAMS AND CIPHERS 

detail to suit the technique of the work in hand. By this means 
the book should be equally useful to any craft. With this broad 
rendering it will be noticed that some of the designs do not appear 
to read in the order described ; in such cases the important letter 
requires that detail which I have suggested in some instances with 
a tint or black. The order of description is followed throughout 
the book for the sake of easy reference; it is only departed from 
in a few places where one reading only is intended, as in the 
LRR on Plate LXXXIV, the continuous Monogram NMN on 
Plate LXXXVII, and the continuous Cipher WTW on Plate ex. 

Before proceeding further I should state the difference 
between a Monogram and a Cipher. This is necessary, as the 
two devices are constantly being miscalled ; some authorities too, 
while correctly describing a Monogram, give a Cipher for illustra- 
tion. A Monogram is a combination of two or more letters, in 
which one letter forms part of another and cannot be separated 
from the whole. A Cipher is merely an interlacing or placing 
together of two or more letters, being in no way dependent for 
their parts on other of the letters. 

Of the two classes Monograms are the more interesting, 
probably on account of their being more difficult to plan, though I 
think they are rarely as pleasing to the eye as the Cipher, except 
in the very severest forms. Compare the whole plate of Ciphers, 
cxiv, with the next plate, cxv, composed entirely of Monograms. 

The difficulty in designing Monograms does not so often lie 



xiv 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

in being able to plan the Monogram, as in being able to produce 
one that will be read by others, and where all the letters will read, 
and those only that are intended. When we begin to put two 
or three letters together that are made up of one another into a 
single unit, other letters are suggested or occur in the device not 
intended; or again, two or three of the letters will be so apparent 
that the third or fourth will only be known to the designer or 
owner. Take, for instance, the PQR on Plate c\\ ; the small 
device is the better one of the two, but few will read it other than 
PQ, QR, or PR. Personally I prefer a design that is a little- 
obscure, if the lines are good, if it is a fine piece of ornament. 

A Monogram or Cipher is in all cases intended for ornament, 
whether used as a mark of ownership by private individuals, or for 
a company, or a trade-mark. For purposes of commerce it is of 
course important that the device should be distinct and easily read. 
The same might apply also to the design for a club or society 
mark. For private use, however, where the device is to enrich 
a piece of jewellery, plate, the binding of a book, a piece of 
furniture, or part of the decoration of a house, it should in the 
first place be a good design. If the conceit is legible to the 
owner, and is of such fine proportion as to be thoroughly satisfying 
to the eye, why should it read like an advertisement, or be like 
* Everything in the shop marked in plain figures'? 

Some of the most beautiful Ciphers I have seen are to be found 
on old French bindings, many of which would be unintelligible if 

xv 



MONOGRAMS AND CIPHERS 

we did not know for whom the books were bound. These Ciphers 
form in many instances the sole decoration of the binding, some- 
times but a single impression appearing on each side, yet the book 
satisfies one as being perfectly decorated. This is so often the 
case with the Monogram and Cipher it may be the only ornament 
that is to enrich a fine piece of workmanship that in such places 
it should be a piece of choice design. 

This brings us to that disputed point in this branch of art, 
the reversing of letters. For my own part I have no hesitation 
whatever in reversing a letter, or turning it upside down, or any 
other way, if it will produce a good piece of ornament. It is just 
as easy to fill a space, and fill it with good balance, with the letters 
facing as we are accustomed to see them, but this method will 
rarely produce that grace, beauty of line, and easy balance that 
letters of similar form turned toward one another will give. As 
an instance of this I would go no further than a single illustration 
which must be familiar to all the Monogram HDD of Henry n 
and Diana of Poitiers Henri Deux, Diane. It matters not where 
we find this, in the decoration of a ceiling, in enamel or painted 
ornament, or as a tooled book-binding, it has a dignity and feeling 
of easy repose that is never tiring. It would have been just as simple 
for the designer to have made a Monogram of these letters without 
reversing one of the D's, but no other possible arrangement would 
give the grace of line we find in this device. Another excuse for 
the reversing or turning upside down of a letter is, that when the 

xvi 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

letters A, B, C, D, E, K, M, N, S, V, W, and Y occur repeated, 
you often get by turning a letter over or upside down a design 
that will read the same from all points of view. This advantage- 
must be apparent to all, where the Monogram or Cipher is to be 
seen from different positions, as it will be, for instance, in the top of 
an inlaid table, a ceiling, a tiled or inlaid floor, or in the decoration 
of some small object like a finely bound book that will lie on a 
table, and on many a piece of the goldsmith's and silversmith's work. 
The H, I, N, O, S, X, and Z can be drawn in Roman so 
as to appear the same upside down, and do not require to be 
turned over or stood on their heads; but with the letters 
A, M, V, W, and Y, though they will not require reversing where 
two occur in a combination, one will have to be turned upside- 
down to make the design read the same from all points of view. 
If there arc only the two letters, this will be simple, but if three 
or four letters are to be put together, it will depend on what 
the third or fourth letter is whether this is possible or not. I 
do not hold with doubling one of the letters in a device simply 
to turn over and make symmetry. If there is not a repeat letter, 
or a letter of similar form in the combination of letters to be put 
together, all letters should be doubled if symmetry, or reading 
from various points of view, must be had. On Plate LXXXV 
will be found a Cipher LT, planned without reversing to read the 
same upside down ; a third letter, H, N, O, S, X, or Z, could be 
introduced without altering the LT, so that the combination of 



xvn 



MONOGRAMS AND CIPHERS 

three letters would read in the same way, whether looked at from 
the top or the bottom. There are but few letters that will plan 
in this way. When it is required of a design that it will read from 
all points of view, Roman letters will usually be found to give the 
most satisfactory result. 

Intermixture of styles should always be avoided. If the Roman 
and Gothic are found too severe to suit a given subject, the Cursive 
and Rustic letters with their easy flowing lines can be made to 
fill almost any space one will be called upon to fill with either 
Monogram or Cipher. 

A device besides being of one style of letter should also be 
pure as a whole ; plan either a Monogram or a Cipher, but don't 
combine the two. The only excuse that might be advanced for 
the mongrel form, would be where a combination of three or more 
letters contained conjoined or hyphened words, represented by, 
say, AB-B or BC-D. Here the B-B and the C-D would form 
Monograms, the A and the B separate letters interlaced into them. 
I have given illustrations of this mixed device on Plate n, BBA ; 
and on Plate XLII, EEO. For this last device there is no excuse, 
except as a trade-mark to be written quickly ; a circle with 
three horizontal strokes, an upright stroke connecting the three 
in the centre, forming a solid device, EEO, on the lines of the 
Cipher FFO on Plate XLIX. 

When planning a device avoid, if it is at all possible to do so, 
having three lines crossing at the same point, making three planes. 



xvm 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

There is always a confusion in the interlacing if there are more 
than two planes, which produces a clumsy appearance in the 
design. There are cases when slanting or curved lines come- 
across a straight line, where three crossings could only he avoided 
by contorting one of the letters ; in such a place it will be better 
to allow the three planes. Examples of Ciphers having three- 
crossings at one point will be found on Plate XL, K.K, Plate 
LXXXIX, MMT, and on Plate xci, YM. Ciphers not inter- 
woven, but placed side by side forming decorative lines, will be 
found on Plates xxm, xxxix, XLVII, and i.x. One with the 
letters written one within another, a useful form for trade- 
marks, is the CCG on Plate xxn. 

A number of the plates have the nine designs carried out in 
one style. These should be useful as examples of the dirk-rent 
characters of letters, as specimen pages for styles. 1 have grouped 
them under four heads as follows : 

ROMAN. 

Plate LXXXI, light. Plate LXXXII, light, with cord and tassel. 
Plate LXXXVII, uniform stroke, small serifs. Plate xevn, sans 
serif, with cord and tassel. 

GOTHIC. 

Plate xn, heavy. Plate LXXXVIII, light, pointed. Plate xcn, 
heavy, ending in leaf-forms. Plate xcm, heavy, suggesting low 
relief, for stone- or wood-carving. Plate c, black-letter. 

xix 



MONOGRAMS AND CIPHERS 

CURSIVE. 

Plates xm and xv, foliated, embroidery. Plate LXXXIII, 
continuous. Plate LXXXIV, half- cursive, upright. Plate LXXXV, 
slanting. Plate LXXXVI, upright, uniform stroke. Plate xc, 
cursive-Roman, thin, uniform stroke. Plate xcix, light, upright, 
flourish. 

RUSTIC. 

Plate xi, jewellery. Plate xx, two-colour. Plate xxxv, 
flourish. Plates xci, xciv, xcv, and xcvi, upright. Plate xcvin, 
quill-rustic. 

Monograms and Ciphers of three different letters will be 
found on Plates cxiv, cxv, and cxvi. On Plates cxvn to cxxi 
are firm-marks of two letters joined with the Ampersand, &. 
Plates cxxn to cxxvn show an alphabet with the '& Co.,' 
examples being given in round and square form. The last one 
of these plates contains also five examples of Numerals in 
Cipher, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, and 1909. Sacred Devices 
and Names fill Plates cxxvm to cxxxn. Plates cxxxin and 
cxxxiv are made up of Labels and three-letter Monograms. 
The letters for the Monograms are taken at random from a 
list of authors. The last plate, cxxxv, is a suggestion for the 
decorative treatment of Sacred Inscriptions in Monogram and 
Cipher, following the style of the Italian Renaissance. 

One plate has been added to the work, engraved by 



xx 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

Mr. Thomas Moring, which shows some few ways in which 
these designs can be intelligently interpreted for a particular craft. 
It also shows how the character of a design may he preserved while 
a change is made in the letters or in their position. Plate i. of the 
work was taken as the model. The PPF has been altered to FPF; 
the FQ transposed and made to read OF; FR to read FK; and RF 
to read RS. In the FFR the R has been made into a P, an R 
substituted for the reversed F, and with a slightly different treatment 
of the second F, the whole made to read RFP. In the sixth design 
the reversed R has been turned back, a very slight difference <>l 
treatment in all the letters being necessary to plan thi^ well. The 
last three designs continue in the same way. A comparison ot 
the engraved plate with Plate i. will show with what little alteration 
a different character or reading can be introduced into a design. 

I trust there will be found something in this book to please all 
tastes, if only a single device. For any errors there may be in the 
work I am alone responsible. In the drawing of the plates I have- 
been ably assisted by different members of the studio. I am 
also indebted for the whole of Plate x. One error has passed me 
unnoticed till the part was published. What should have been DP, 
on Plate xxxiv, I have drawn OP ; this, though a correct Cipher, 

is out of place on this plate. 

A. A. TURBAYNE. 

CARLTON STUDIO, 
LONDON, March 1906. 



XXI 



MONOGRAMS 

AND 
CIPHERS 




EPF 



QF 



FF 






RS 



RFP 




FS 



SR 



SUGGESTIONS AS TO VARYING TREATMENT 

BY THE ENGRAVER OF THE DESIGNS IN THIS WORK 







AA 



AA 



AA 




VARIOUS -TREATMENTS-OP -THE -SAME -DESIGN 



PLATE I AA 




AA 



AA 



AB 




BA 



AAB 



BBA 




AC 



CA 



AAC 



PLATE II AA, AB, AC 




PLATE III-AC, AD 




AE 



EA 



AAE 




EEA 



AF 



FA 




AAF 



FFA 



AC 



e 



PLATE IV AE, AF, AC, 




GA 



AAG 



GGA 




AH 



HA 



AAH 




HHA 



AI 



AAI 



PLATE V AG, AM, AI 






1IA 



AJ 



JA 






AAJ 



JJA 



AK 






KA 



AAK 



KKA 



PLATE VIAI. AJ, AK 




AL 



LA 



AAL 




LLA 



AM 



MA 




AAM 



MMA 



AN 



PLATE VII AL, AM, AN 



( 




NA 



AAN 



NNA 




AO 



AAO 



OOA 




AP 



PA 



AAP 



6 



PLATE VI1I-AN, AO, AP 




PPA 



AQ. 



QA 




AR 



RA 



AAR 




RRA 



AS 



SA 



PLATE IX AP, AQ, AR, AS 




AAS 



SSA 



AT 




TA 



TTA 



AU 




UA 



AAU 



UUA 



AM 



PLATE X AS, AT, AU 




AV 




VA 




AW 






WA 



AAW 



WWA 






AX 



AY 



AZ 



6 



PLATE XI AV, AW, AX, AY, AZ 




PLATE XII- BB, BC, BD 





EEB 




BBF 




EB 





FFB 







BBE 





BG 



e 



PLATE XIII BE, BF, BG 




GB 




BBG 




GGB 






BH 



HB 



BBH 






HHB 



BI 



BBI 



PLATE XIV-BG, BH, BI 




PLATE XVBI, BJ, BK, BL 




BBL 




LLB 




BM 




MB 





BBM 



MMB 




HN 





NB 



BBN 



6 



PLATE XVIBL, BM, BN 




NNB 




BO 




OB 






BBO 



OOB 



BP 






BBP 



PPB 



e 



PLATE XVII BN, BO, BP 





BR 





BBR 




RRB 




BS 




SB 





BBS 



SSB 



6 



PLATE XVIII-BQ, BR, BS 




BT 



TB 



BBT 




TTB 



BU 



UB 




BBU 



UUB 



BV 



e 



PLATE XIX BT, BU, BV 




VB 



BBV 



BW 




WB 



WWB 



BBW 




BX 



BY 



BZ 



e 



PLATE XX- BV, BW. BX, BY, BZ 





CCD 



DDG 



CE 




E c 



CCE 



EEC 



6 



PLATE XXI CC, CD, CE 






CF 



FC 



CCF 






FFC 



CG 



GC 






CCG 



GGC 



CH 



e 



PLATE XXII CF, CG, CH 






HC 



CCH 



HHC 






C I 



1C 



CGI 




IIC 



PLATE XXIII CH, CI, CJ 




CCJ 



JJC 



CK 




KG 



CCK 



KKC 




CL 



LC 



CCL 



8 



6 



PLATE XXIV -CJ, CK, CL 




LLC 



CM 



MC 




GGM 



MMC 



CN 




NC 



CCN 



NNC 



6 



PLATE XXV CL, CM, CN 






CO 



oc 



ceo 




ooc 






CCP 



PPG 



CQ 



e 



PLATE XXVI CO, CP, CQ 




CR 



RRC 



CCS 



RC 



CS 



SSC 



CCR 




SC 




CT 



PLATE XXVII CR, CS, CT 







TC 



CCT 



TTC 




CU 



uc 



ecu 




uuc 



cv 



vc 



PLATE XXVUlCT. CU, CV 







ccv 



we 



cw 




we 



ccw 



wwc 




ex 



CY 



cz 



PLATE XXIX CV, CW, CX, CY, CZ 






DD 



DE 



ED 






DDE 



EED 



DF 






FD 



DDF 



FFD 



6 



PLATE XXX-DD, DE, DF 





DG 



GD 



DDG 




GGD 



DH 



HD 




DDH 



HHD 



DI 



6 



PLATE XXXI DG, DH, DI 




DDI 



IID 




DK 



KD 



DDK 



8 



6 



PLATE XXXII Dl, DJ, DK 




KKD 



DL 



LD 




DDL 



LLD 



DM 




MD 



DDM 



MMD 



PLATE XXXIII DK, DL, DM 



e 







DN 



ND 



DON 




NND 



DO 



OD 




DDO 



OOD 



DP 



6 



PLATE XXXIV DN, DO, DP 






PD 



DDP 



PPD 






DQ 



DR 



RD 









DDR 



RRD 



DS 



PLATE XXXV DP, DQ, DR, DS 




SD 



DOS 



SSD 




DT 



TD 



DDT 




TTD 



DU 



UD 



PLATE XXXVI-DS, DT, DO 




DDU 



UUD 



DV 




VD 



DW 



WD 




DDW 



WWD 



DX 



6 



PLATE XXXVII DU, DV, DW, DX 






DY 



D Z 



EE 






EF 



FE 



EEF 






FFE 



EG 



GE 



6 



PLATE XXXVIII DY, DZ, EE, EF, EG 






EEC 



GGE 



EH 




mra 





HE 



EEH 



HHE 






El 



EEI 



HE 



PLATE XXXIX EG, EH, El 






EEJ 






KE 



EEK 






KKE 



EL 



LE 



6 



PLATE XL-EJ, EK, EL 






EEL 



LLE 



EM 






ME 



EEM 



MME 






EN 



NE 



EEN 



6 



PLATE XLI EL, EM, EN 




NNE 



EO 



EEO 




OOE 



EP 



PE 




EEP 



PPE 



6 



PLATE XLII EN, EO, EP, EQ 




QE 



RE 



ES 





kJ 




ER 



ER 






HER 



RRE 






SE 



EES 



6 



PLATE XLIII EQ, ER, ES 






5SE 



ET 



TE 






EET 



TTE 



EU 






UE 



EEU 



UUE 



PLATE XLIV ES, ET, EU 






EV 



WE 








EEW 



WWE 



EX 






EY 



EZ 



FF 



6 



PLATE XLV EV, EW, EX, EY, EZ, FF 









FG 



GF 



FFG 






GGF 



FH 



HF 









FFH 



HHF 



Fl 



6 



PLATE XLVI FG, FH, Fl 






FFI 



IIP 



FJ 






FK 



KF 






FFK 



KKF 



FL 



PLATE XLVII FI, FJ, FK, FL 






LF 



FFL 



LLF 






FM 



MF 



FFM 






MMF 



FN 



NF 



6 



PLATE XLVI1I FL, FM, FN 






-'" 

': . > * 

i . . . 






FFN 



NNF 



FO 






OF 



FFO 



OOF 






FP 



PF 



FFP 



e 



PLATE XLIX FN, FO, FP 






PPF 



FQ 



FR 






RF 



FFR 



RRF 






FS 



5F 



FFS 



PLATE L FH. Kg, KR, FS 






SSF 



FT 



TF 






FFT 



TTF 



FU 



CR 





UF 



FFU 



UUF 



e 



PLATE LI FS, FT, FU 







IV 



VI 



I-'W 




FFW 



WWF 




FX 



FY 



FZ 



6 



PLATE L1I-KV, KW, FX, FV, FZ 






GG 



GH 



HG 






GGH 



HHG 



GI 






GGI 



IIG 



GJ 







PLATE LIII GO, GH, GI, GJ 




GL 



LG 



GGL 



PLATE LIVGJ, GK, GL 




LLG 



GM 



MG 




GGM 



MMG 



GN 




NG 



GGN 



NNG 







PLATE LV GL, GM, GN 




OOG 



GP 



PG 




GGP 



PPG 



GQ 



e 



PLATE LVI GO, GP, GtJ 




QG 



GR 



GGR 



RRG 



SG 



GGS 



RG 




G5 




SSG 



e 



PLATE LVII GQ, GR, GS 







GT 



TCI 



GOT 




TTG 



GU 



UG 




GGU 



UUG 



GV 



6 



PLATE LV1II-GT, CiU, GV 



W 




GGW 



WWG 



GX 



"TfT, 




GY 



e 



PLATE LIX GV, GW, GX, GY, GZ, HH 






HI 



HHI 



111 I 




HK 



KH 



HHK 



1 



e 



I'LATE LX III, HJ, UK 









KKH 



HL 



LH 




MH 



HHM 



MMH 







PLATE LXI HK, HL, HM 






HN 



NH 



HHN 






NNH 



HO 



HHO 






OOH 



HP 



PH 



ffl 



e 



PLATE LXII UN, HO, HP 




HHP 



PPH 



HQ 




QH 



HR 



RH 




HHR 



RRH 



HS 



PLATE LXIII HP, HQ, IIR, HS 





HHS 



SSH 




HT 



TH 



HHT 




TTH 



HU 



UH 



6 



PLATE LXIV-HS, HT, HU 






HHU 



UUH 



HV 




HW 



HHW 




WWH 



HX 



HY 



PLATE LXVHU, HV, HW, HX, HY 





KI 



UK 



KKI 







PLATE LXVI HZ, II, IJ. IK. 




1L 



IIL 



LLI 




IM 



IIM 



MMI 




NI 



UN 



NNI 



e 



PLATE LXVII IL, IM, IN 




IO 



no 



ooi 




IP 



IIP 



PPI 




iQ 



IR 



IIR 



e 



PLATE LXVIH-IO, IP, IQ, IR 




RRI 



IS 



IIS 






SSI 



IT 



IIT 




TTI 



IU 



IIU 



e 



PLATE LXIX IR, IS, IT, IU 




IW 



IIW 



WWI 




IZ 



6 



PLATE LXX 1U, IV, IW, IX, IY, IZ 




e 



PLATE LXXI-JJ, JK, JL, JM 









MJ 



JJM 



MMJ 




NNJ 



JJO 



e 



PLATE LXXII-JM. JN, JO 









oo; 




(1 






JJP 



PPJ 



JQ 






QJ 



a 



e 



PLATE LXXIII JO, JP, JQ, JR 









RRJ 



JS 






s; 



JJS 



SSJ 






JT 



TJ 



JJT 



I 



e 



PLATE LXXIV-JR, JS, JT 




TTJ 








UUJ 






JJV 



PLATE LXXV JT, JU, JV, JW 







KK 



KL 




LK 



KKL 



LLK 



PLATE LXXVI JW, JX, JY. JZ, KK. KL 



^ 

: 

. 







MMK 



KN 




KKN 



NNK 



KO 



PLATE LXXVIIKM, KN, KO 






OK 



KKO 



OOK 






KP 



PK 



KKP 




PPK 





KQ 



QK 



e 



PLATE LXXVIII-KO, KP, 




KR 



RK 



KKS 



SSK 



KKR 




K.T 



e 






PLATE LXXIX KR, KS, KT 







KU 



UK 



KKU 






UUK 



KV 



VK 



PLATE LXXX KT, KU, KV 







KKV 



KW 



WK 







KY 



KZ 



ZK 



@ 



PLATE LXXXI KV, KW, KX, KV, KZ 







LL 



LM 



ML 





17 ( 




H/JS 



LLM 



MML 



LN 




NL 



LLN 



NNL 



e 



PLATE LXXX1I JLL, LM, LN 





LO 



OOL 



LLP 



OL 



LP 



LPP 



LLO 




PL 




L 



PLATE LXXXIII LO, LP, LQ 









LR 



RL 







LLR 



LRK 



LS 




(. 



HrK 
PMI 





SL 



LLS 



SSL 



PLATE LXXXIV LQ. LR, LS 






LT 



TL 



LLT 




LLU 



UUL 



LV 



PLATE LXXXVLT, LU, LV 






VL 



LW 






LLW 



WWL, 



LX 






LY 



YL 



LZ 



PLATE LXXXVI LV, LW, LX, LY, LZ 



** 

; 



, 









MM 



MN 



NM 






MMN 



NMN 



MO 






OM 



MMO 



OOM 



6 






PLATE LXXXVII MM, MN, MO 




MP 



PM 



MMP 




MR 



RM 



MMR 



6 



PLATE LXXXV1H MP, Mg, MR 






RRM 



MS 



SM 







MMT 



TTM 



ffi 



e 



PLATE LXXXIX MR, MS, MT 



) 




MU 



UM 



MMT 



Kr ^/d 






UUM 



MV 



\'M 






MW 



WM 



6 



PLATE XC MU, MV, MW 







W\VM 



MX 



MY 






YM 



MZ 



N N 






NO 



ON 



NNO 







PLATE XCI MW, MX, MY, MZ, NN, NO 




OON 



NP 



PN 




NNP 



PPN 



NR 



NQ 




RN 



e 



PLATE XCII-NO, NP, NQ, NR 





NNR 



RRN 



N S 




SN 



NNS 



SSN 




NT 



TN 



NNT 



PLATE XCIII NR, NS, NT 






TTN 



NU 



UN 






NNU 



UUN 



NV 






VN 



N W 




WN 



6 



PLATE XCIV-NT, NU, NV, NW 






NNW 



WWN 



NX 






NY 



NZ 



00 






OP 



PO 



OOP 



6 



PLATE XCV NW, NX, NY, NZ, OO, OP 






FPO 



OC 



OR 






RO 



OOR 



RRO 






OS 



so 



oos 



6 



PLATE XCVIOP, OQ, OR, OS 




GOT 



TTO 



OU 




OV 



VO 



6 



PLATE XCVII OS, OT, OU, OV 




oov 



wo 



ow 






wo 



oow 



\\'\X'O 






ox 



OY 



oz 



la 



PLATE XCVIII 0V, OW, OX, OY, OZ 





pp 




c 





Q.P 




PR 



RP 



PPR 





\) 




PRR 



PS 



SP 







PLATE XCIX PP, PQ, PR, PS 




TP 



PPT 



TTP 






PU 



UP 



PPU 











PLATE C-PS, PT, PU 






UUP 



PV 



VP 






PPV 



PW 



WP 




PX 



6 



PLATE CI PIT, PV, PW, PX 






PY 



v' p 



PZ 






QQ 






QS 



SQ 



QT 



ft) 



6 



PLATE CII PY, PZ, tw, gR, gs, 




TQ 



QU 



UQ 




QX 




QY 



YQ 



QZ 



PLATE CIII tJT, QU, QW, QX, QY, QZ 



-'.- 




RR 



RRS 



TR 






RS 



SR 




SSR 



RT 




RRT 



TTR 



6 



PLATE CIV-RR, RS, RT 




- 



\u 




RU 



UR 



RRU 




UUR 



RV 



VR 




RW 



WR 



RRW 



6 



PLATE CV RU, RV, RW 




WWR 



RX 



RY 




YR 



RZ 



SS 




ST 



TS 



SST 



6 



PLATE CVIRW, RX, RY, RZ, SS, SI 




TTS 



USS 



SSV 



su 



U5 




SV 



VS 




sw 



ws 



e 



PLATE CVIIST, SU, SV, SW 




sws 



wvrs 



sx 




SY 



YS 



SYS 




sz 



TT 



TU 



PLATE CV1II-SW. SX, SV, SZ, TT, TU 




UT 



TTU 



UUT 




TV 



VT 



TTV 




TW 



TTW 



6 



PLATE CIX TU, TV, TW 






WTW 



TX 



TY 






YT 



TTY 



TZ 






UU 



UV 



vu 



6 



PLATE CX-TW, TX, TY, TZ, UU. UV 




uw 



wu 



wwu 




uuw 



ux 



UY 




YU 



uz 



vv 



e 



PLATE CXI UW, UX, UY, UZ, VV 




vw 



wv 



W\W 




VX 



VY 



YV 



W 




vz 



ww 



6 




PLATE CXII-VW, VX, VY, VZ, WW, WX 






WY 




XX 



XY 



XZ 







YY 



YZ 



ZZ 



6 



PLATE CXIII WY, WZ, XX, XV, XZ, YY, YZ, ZZ 







ABC 



BCD 



CDE 




DEF 



EFG 



FGH 




CHI 



HIJ 



IJK 



PLATE CXIV THREE-LETTER CIPHERS, 






w 






JKL 



KLM 



LMN 






MNO 



NOP 






P Q. R 



RST 







PLATE CXV THREE-LETTER MONOGRAMS 




STU 



STU 



TUV 




TUV 



UVW 



UVW 




vwx 



WXY 



XYZ 



6) 



6 



PLATE CXVI THREE LETTER CIPHERS AND MONOGRAM 






A8B 



B8A 



B&C 






C8B 



C&D 



D&C 




D&E 



E&D 



E&F 



6 



PLATE CXVII TWO LETTERS WITH THE & 






F&G 



G&F 






G&H 



HSG 



H&I 






6 



PLATE CXVH1-TWO LETTERS WITH THE & 






K8J 



K&L 



L&K 






L&M M&L 

T 



M8N 






N0M 



N&O 



O&N 



PLATE CXIX TWO LETTERS WITH THE & 






O8P 



P&O 






Q8P 



Q8R 






R8S 



S6R 



S8T 



e 



PLATE CXX TWO LETTERS WITH THE It 






T& 5 






U&V 






6 



PLATE CXXI TWO LETTERS WITH THE & 






A8C9LP 



B0C9 






B8C? 



C8C9 



C8C9 






D8C9 



E0C9 




PLATE CXXII COMPANY CIPHERS 






F8C2 



F&C2 






G8C2 



H&C2 










6 



PLATE CXXIII COMPANY CIPHERS 




K8C9 



L#C9 



L8C2 






M8C9 



M8C9 



N8C9 




PLATE CXXIV -COMPANY CIPHERS 



m 




*TA 




N8C2 



O&C9 



O8C2 






P<3C2 



P<3C2 



Q&C2 






R0C2 



e 



e 



PLATE CXXV COMPANY CIPHERS 






58C2 



S8C2 



S&C1 






S&C? 






U8C2 



6 



PLATE CXXVI-COMPANY CIPHERS 






W8C9 



X8C9 



Y8C2 






Z8C9 



1905 



19O6 






19O7 



19O8 



1909 



6 



PLATE CXXVII COMPANY CIPHERS, YEARS 






IMS 



XP AH 





CHRIST 



XPC 




XP 



ESUS 




PLATE CXXVIII-SACRF.D DEVICES 




MARY 



XPZ 




XPC 



JOSEPH 



RAO 




INRI 



IHS 



6 



PLATE CXXIX SACRED DEVICES 




ALPHA 




OMEGA 



6 



PLATE CXXX SACRED HEVICES 



rr 




IHS 



IHS 



IHS 




XPC 



IHC 



IHC 




XPS 



IHS 



PLATE CXXXI SACRED DEVICES 




ANNO 



AU 




AD 



DOMINI 




AD 



e 



PLATE IXXXII-SACRED DEVICES 




EAP 



RWE 



6 



PLATE CXXXIII LABELS AND MONOGRAMS 




LFA 



JFC 



EBB 



6 



PLATE CXXXIV LABELS AND MONCXJRAMS 


























ffl 



PLATE CXXXV SACRED DEVICES 



K 1)1 N K f K(i H 

T ami A. CON s I' A H 1. F. 

Printers In His MajrMy 



NK 

36MO 

T8 

1906 

C.I 

ROBA